Reference range: normal level <3.3 in cerebrospinal fluid.

S-100 proteins are a family of at least 21 calcium binding proteins composed of two sub units (alpha and beta) that that are found in the nervous system as dimers alpha beta and beta beta (which often also exist as monomeric S-100 beta).

The proteins are 100% soluble at neutral pH (100% soluble hence the name). S-100 is found in cells of ectodermal origin in the brain and skin and in the proteins involved in calcium-dependent functions: cell cycle, differentiation, cell structures, signaling and learning. With CNS damage such as cerebral infarction, trauma, brain tumors and metastases S-100 exhibited both in CSF and serum. The results of the S-100 levels are examined preferably together with other brain injury markers such as NSE, NFL, tau, P-tau, beta-amyloid.

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Clinical studies